Christian Staehelin

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Publications in scientific journals


  1. Wang, R.-L., He, Y.-N., Staehelin, C., Liu, S.-W., Su, Y.-J., and Zhang, J.-E. 2016. Identification of two Cytochrome Monooxygenase P450 Genes, CYP321A7 and CYP321A9, from the tobacco cutworm moth (Spodoptera litura) and their expression in response to plant allelochemicals. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 18: 2278. doi:10.3390/ijms18112278.


  2. Ge, Y.Y., Xiang, Q.W., Wagner, C., Zhang, D., Xie, Z.P. and Staehelin, C. 2016. The type 3 effector NopL of Sinorhizobium sp. strain NGR234 is a MAP kinase substrate. Journal of Experimental Botany. 67: 2483-2494. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erw065.

  3. Liu, L., Yu, S., Xie, Z.P. and Staehelin, C. 2016. Distance-dependent effects of pathogenic fungi on seedlings of a legume tree: Impaired nodule formation and identification of antagonistic rhizosphere bacteria. Journal of Ecology. 104: 1009-1019. doi: 10.1111/1365-2745.12570.

  4. Li, F., Zhao, K., Deng, Q.L., Zhang, M., Staehelin, C., Chen X.X., Chen, H.Y., Wang G.S. and Li B.S. 2016. Three new species of Boletaceae from the Heishiding Nature Reserve in Guangdong Province, China. Mycological Progress. 15: 1269-1283. doi: 10.1007/s11557-016-1233-5.

  5. Zhang, L.Y., Cai, J., Li, R.J., Liu, W., Wagner, C., Wong, K.B., Xie, Z.P., and Staehelin, C. 2016. A single amino acid substitution in a chitinase of the legume Medicago truncatula is sufficient to gain Nod-factor hydrolase activity. Open Biology. 6: 160061.


  6. Wang. R.L., Staehelin, C., Xia, Q.Q., Su, Y.J., and Zeng, R.S. 2015. Identification and characterization of CYP9A40 from the tobacco cutworm moth (Spodoptera litura), a cytochrome P450 gene induced by plant allelochemicals and insecticides. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 16: 22606-22620.

  7. Staehelin, C., and Krishnan, H. B. 2015. Nodulation outer proteins: double-edged swords of symbiotic rhizobia. Biochemical Journal 470: 263-274. doi: 10.1042/BJ20150518.

  8. Lei, M.J., Wang, Q., Li, X., Chen, A., Luo, L., Xie, Y., Li, G., Luo, D., Mysore, K.S., Wen, J., Xie, Z.P., Staehelin, C. and Wang, Y.Z. 2015. The small GTPase ROP10 of Medicago truncatula is required for both tip growth of root hairs and Nod factor-induced root hair deformation. Plant Cell. 1-17.

  9. Wang, R. L., Li, J., Staehelin, C., Xin, X. W., Su, Y. J., and Zeng, R. S. 2015. Expression analysis of two P450 monooxygenase genes of the tobacco cutworm moth (Spodoptera litura) at different developmental stages and in response to plant allelochemicals. Journal of chemical ecology. 41: 111-119. doi: 10.1007/s10886-014-0540-z.


  10. Wang, W., Xie, Z.P., and Staehelin C. 2014. Functional analysis of chimeric LysM domain receptors mediating Nod factor-induced defense signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana and chitin-induced nodulation signaling in Lotus japonicus. Plant Journal. 78: 56-69.


  11. Tian, Y., Liu, W., Cai, J., Zhang, L.Y., Wong, K.B., Feddermann, N., Boller, T., Xie, Z.P. and Staehelin C. 2013. The Nod factor hydrolase of Medicago truncatula: Characterization of an enzyme specifically cleaving rhizobial nodulation signals. Plant Physiology. 163: 1179-1190.


  12. Xin, D.-W., Liao, S., Xie, Z.P., Hann, D.R., Steinle, L., Boller, T., and Staehelin C. 2012. Functional analysis of NopM, a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase (NEL) domain effector of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234. PLoS Pathogens. 8: e1002707.

  13. Wang R.-L., Staehelin, C., Dayan, F.E., Song, Y.-Y., Su, Y.-J., and Zeng R.-S. 2012. Simulated acid rain accelerates litter decomposition and enhances the allelopathic potential of the invasive plant Wedelia trilobata (creeping daisy). Weed Science. 60, 462-467. doi: 10.1614/WS-D-12-00016.1.

  14. Liu, Y., Yu, S., Xie, Z.P., and Staehelin, C. 2012. Analysis of a negative plant?soil feedback in a subtropical monsoon forest. Journal of Ecology 100: 1019-1028.

  15. Liang, M.-T., Yang, C.-P., Xie, Z.P., and Staehelin, C. 2012. Use of the Cre-loxP recombination system as an estimate for Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation of tobacco leaves. Biotechnology Letters. 34, 747-754. doi: 10.1007/s10529-011-0810-6.

  16. Liu, X., Liang, M., Etienne, R., Wang, Y., Staehelin, C. and Yu S. 2012. Experimental evidence for a phylogenetic Janzen-Connell effect in a subtropical forest. Ecology Letters. 15: 111-118. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01715.x.

  17. Wang, W., Hu, Y., Sun, D., Staehelin, C., Xin, D. and Xie, J. 2012. Identification and evaluation of two diagnostic markers linked to Fusarium wilt resistance (race 4) in banana (Musa spp.). Molecular Biology Reports. 39: 451-459. doi: 10.1007/s11033-011-0758-6.


  18. Zhang, L., Chen, X.-J., Lu, H.-B., Xie, Z.P. and Staehelin, C. 2011. Functional analysis of the type 3 effector nodulation outer protein L (NopL) from Rhizobium sp. NGR234: Symbiotic effects, phosphorylation, and interference with mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Journal of Biology Chemistry 286: 32178-32187.

  19. Staehelin, C., Xie, Z.P., Illana, A. and Vierheilig, H. 2011. Long-distance transport of signals during symbiosis: are nodule formation and mycorrhization autoregulated in a similar way? Plant Signaling and Behavior 6: 372-377.


  20. Wang, R.-L., Staehelin, C., Peng, S.-L., Wang, W.-T., Xie, X.-M. and Lu H.-N. 2010. Responses of Mikania micrantha, an invasive weed to elevated CO2: Induction of b-caryophyllene synthase, changes in emission capability and allelopathic potential of b-caryophyllene. Journal of Chemical and Ecology 36: 1076-1082.

  21. Khaosaad, T., Staehelin, C., Steinkellner, S., Hage-Ahmed K., Ocampo J.A., Garcia-Garrido J.M. and Vierheilig H. 2010. The Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 systemically suppresses arbuscular mycorrhizal root colonization in a split-root system of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Physiolgia Plantarum 140: 238-245.

  22. Li, D.-M., Staehelin, C., Wang, W.-T. and Peng S.-L. 2010. Molecular cloning and characterization of a chitinase-homologous gene from Mikania micrantha infected by Cuscuta campestris. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 28: 90-101.


  23. Li, R., Yu, S., Wang, Y., Staehelin, C. and Zang R. 2009. Distance-dependent effects of soil-derived biota on seedling survival of the tropical tree legume Ormosia semicastrata. Journal of Vegetation Science 20: 527-534.

  24. Li, D.-M., Staehelin, C., Zhang, Y.-S. and Peng S.-L. 2009. Identification of genes differentially expressed in Mikania micrantha during Cuscuta campestris infection by suppression subtractive hybridization. Journal of Plant Physiology. 166: 1423-1435. doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2009.02.002.


  25. Dai, W.-J., Zeng, Y., Xie, Z.P. and Staehelin, C. 2008. Symbiosis-promoting and deleterious effects of NopT, a novel type 3 effector of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234. Journal of Bacteriology 190: 5101-5110.

  26. Xin, D.-W., Qiu, H.-M., Shan, D.-P., Shan, C.-Y., Liu, C.-Y., Hu, G-H., Staehelin, C. and Chen, Q.-S. 2008. Analysis of quantitative trait loci underlying the period of reproductive growth stages in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.). Euphytica 162: 155-165.

  27. Li, Y.-H., Chen, Q.-Z., Xiao, J.-N., Chen, Y.-F., Li, X.-J., Staehelin, C. and Huang, X.-L. 2008. Characteristics of adventitious root formation in cotyledon segments of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zihua): two induction patterns, histological origins and the relationship with polar auxin transport. Plant Growth Regulation 54: 165-177.

  28. Saad, M.M., Staehelin, C., Broughton, W.J. and Deakin W.J. 2008. Protein-protein interactions within type three secretion system-dependent pili of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234. Journal of Bacteriology 190: 750-754.


  29. Xiong J.-S., Balland-Vanney, M., Xie, Z.P., Schultze, M., Kondorosi, A., Kondorosi, E. and Staehelin, C. 2007. Molecular cloning of a bifunctional beta-xylosidase/alfa-L-arabinosidase from alfalfa roots: Heterologous expression in Medicago truncatula and substrate specificity of the purified enzyme. Journal of Experimental Botany 58: 2799-2810.

  30. Meixnera, C., Vegvarib, G., Ludwig-Mullerc, J., Gagnond, H., Steinkellnera, S., Staeheline, c., Gresshofff P. and Vierheiliga, H. 2007. Two defined alleles of the LRR receptor kinase GmNARK in supernodulating soybean govern differing autoregulation of mycorrhization. Physiologia Plantarum 130: 261?270.


  31. Staehelin, C., Forsberg, L.S., D'Haeze, W., Gao, M.-Y., Carlson, R.W., Xie, Z.P., Pellock, B.J., Jones, K.M., Walker, G.C., Streit, W.R. and Broughton, W.J. 2006. Exo-oligosaccharides of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 are required for symbiosis with various legumes. Journal of Bacteriology 188: 6168-6178.

  32. Catford, J.-G. Staehelin, C., Larose, G., Piche, Y. and Vierheilig, H. 2006. Systemically suppressed isoflavonoids and their stimulating effects on nodulation and mycorrhization in alfalfa split-root systems. Plant Soil 285: 257-266.

  33. van der Heijden, M.G.A., Bakker, R., Verwaal, J., Scheublin, T.R., Rutten, M., van Logtestijn, R. and Staehelin, C. 2006. Symbiotic bacteria as a determinant of plant community structure and plant productivity in dune grassland. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 56: 178-187.


  34. Ovtsyna, A.O., Dolgikh, E.A., Kilanova, A.S., Tsyganov, V.E., Borisov, A.Y., Tikhonovich, I.A. and Staehelin, C. 2005. Nod factors induce Nod factor cleaving enzymes in pea roots. Genetic and pharmacological approaches indicate different activation mechanisms. Plant Physiology 139: 1051-1064.

  35. Meixner, C., Ludwig-Muller, J., Miersch, O., Gresshoff, P., Staehelin, C. and Vierheilig, H. 2005. Lack of mycorrhizal autoregulation and phytohormonal changes in the supernodulating soybean mutant nts1007. Planta 222: 709?715.


  36. Salzer P., Feddermann, N., Wiemken, A., Boller, T. and Staehelin, C. 2004. Sinorhizobium meliloti -induced chitinase gene expression in Medicago truncatula ecotype R108-1: a comparison between symbiosis-specific class V and defence-related class IV chitinases. Planta 219: 626-638.

  37. Streit W.R., Schmitz, R.A., Perret, X., Staehelin, C., Deakin, W., Raasch, C., Liesegang, H. and Broughton, W.J. 2004. An evolutionary hot spot - the pNGR234b replicon of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234. Journal of Bacteriology 186: 535-542.

  38. Bartsev, A., Deakin, W.J., Boukli, N.M., McAlvin, C.B., Stacey, G., Malnoe, P., Broughton W.J. and Staehelin, C. 2004. NopL, an effector protein of Rhizobium sp. NGR234, thwarts activation of plant defense reactions. Plant Physiology 134: 871-879.


  39. Bartsev, A., Boukli, N.W., Deakin, W.J., Staehelin, C. and Broughton W.J. 2003. Purification and phosphorylation of the effector protein NopL from Rhizobium sp. NGR234. FEBS Letters 554: 271-274.

  40. Xie, Z.P., Staehelin, C., Wiemken, A., Broughton, W.J., Boller, T. and Muller, J. 2003. Accumulation of soluble carbohydrates, trehalase and sucrose synthase in effective (Fix+) and ineffective (Fix_) nodules of soybean cultivars that differentially nodulate with Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Functtional Plant Biology 30: 965-971.

  41. Broughton, W.J., Zhang, F., Perret, X., and Staehelin C. 2003. Signals exchanged between legumes and Rhizobium: agricultural uses and perspectives. Plant and Soil 252: 129-137.

  42. Catford, J.-G., Staehelin, C., Lerat, S., Piche Y. and Vierheilig, H. 2003. Suppression of arbuscular mycorrhizal root colonization and nodule formation in split-root systems of alfalfa after pre-inoculation and treatment with Nod factors. Journal of Experimental Botany 54: 1481-1487.


  43. Staehelin, C., Charon, C., Crespi, M., Boller, T. and Kondorosi, A. 2001. Medicago truncatula plants overexpressing the early nodulin gene enod40 exhibit accelerated mycorrhizal colonization and enhanced formation of arbuscules. PNAS 98: 15366-15371.

  44. Suarez, V., Staehelin, C., Arango, R., Holtorf, H., Hofsteenge, J. and Meins F. Jr. 2001. Substrate specificity and antifungal activity of recombinant tobacco class I chitinases. Plant Molecular Biology 45: 609-618.


  45. Heil, M., Staehelin, C. and McKey, D. 2000. Low chitinase activity in Acacia myrmecophytes: a potential trade-off between biotic and chemical defences? Naturwissenschaften 87: 555-558.

  46. Muller, J., Staehelin, C., Xie, Z.P., Neuhaus-Url, G. and Boller, T. 2000. Nod factors and chitooligomers elicit an increase in cytosolic calcium in aequorin-expressing soybean cells. Plant Physiology 124: 733-739.

  47. Ovtsyna, A.O., Schultze, M., Tikhonovich, I.A., Spaink, H.P., Kondorosi, E., Kondorosi, A. and Staehelin, C. 2000. Nod factors of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and their fucosylated derivatives stimulate a Nod factor cleaving activity in pea roots and are hydrolyzed in vitro by plant chitinases at different rates. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interaction 13: 799-807.

  48. Perret, X., Staehelin, C. and Broughton, W.J. 2000. Molecular basis of symbiotic promiscuity. Microbiol. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 64: 180-201.

  49. Staehelin, C., .Schultze, M. , Tokuyasu, K., Poinsot, V., Prome, J.-C., Kondorosi, E. and Kondorosi, A. 2000. N-deacetylation of Sinorhizobium meliloti Nod factors increases their stability in the Medicago sativa rhizosphere and decreases their biological activity. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interacttion 13: 72-79.


  50. Xie, Z.P., Staehelin, C. Wiemken, A., Broughton, W.J., Muller, J., and Boller, T. 1999. Symbiosis-stimulated chitinase isoenzymes of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Journal of Experimental Botany 50: 327-333.


  51. Schultze, M., Staehelin, C., Brunner, F., Genetet, I., Legrand, M., Fritig, B., Kondorosi, E. and Kondorosi, A. 1998. Plant chitinase/lysozyme isoforms show distinct substrate specificity and cleavage site preference towards lipochitooligosaccharide Nod signals. The Plant Journal 16: 571-580.

  52. Kiss, E., Mergaert, P., Olah, B., Kereszt, A., Staehelin, C., Davies, A.E., Downie, J.A., Kondorosi, A. and Kondorosi, E. 1998. Conservation of nolR in the Sinorhizobium and Rhizobium genera of the Rhizobiaceae family. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interaction 11: 1186-1195.

  53. Minic, Z., Brown, S., de Kouchkovsky, Y., Schultze, M. and Staehelin, C. 1998. Purification and characterisation of a novel chitinase-lysozyme, of another chitinase, both hydrolysing Rhizobium meliloti Nod factors, and of a pathogenesis-related protein from Medicago sativa roots. Biochemical Journal 332: 329-335.

  54. Fellay, R., Hanin, M., Montorzi, G., Frey, J., Freiberg, C., Golinowski, W., Staehelin, C., Broughton, W.J. and Jabbouri, S. 1998. nodD2 of Rhizobium sp. NGR234 is involved in the repression of the nodABC operon. Molecular Microbiology 27: 1039-1050.


  55. Xie, Z.P., Staehelin, C., Wiemken, A. and Boller, T. 1996. Ethylene responsiveness of soybean cultivars characterized by leaf senescence, chitinase induction and nodulation. Journal of Plant Physiology 149: 690-694.


  56. Staehelin, C., Schultze, M., Kondorosi, E. and Kondorosi, A. 1995. Lipo-chitooligo-saccharide nodulation signals from Rhizobium meliloti induce their rapid degradation by the host plant alfalfa. Plant Physiology 108: 1607-1614.

  57. Xie, Z.P., Staehelin, C., Vierheilig, H., Wiemken, A., Jabbouri, S., Broughton, W.J., Vogeli-Lange, R. and Boller, T. 1995. Rhizobial nodulation factors stimulate mycorrhizal colonization of nodulating and nonnodulating soybeans. Plant Physiol 108: 1519-1525.

  58. Schultze, M., Staehelin, C., Rohrig, H., John, M., Schmidt, J., Kondorosi, E., Schell, J. and Kondorosi, A. 1995. In vitro sulfotransferase activity of Rhizobium meliloti NodH protein: Lipochitooligosaccharide nodulation signals are sulfated after synthesis of the core structure. PNAS 92: 2706-2709.

  59. Muller, J., Staehelin, C., Boller, T. and Wiemken, A. 1995. Carbohydrate pools in nodules of "nonnodulating" and "supernodulating" soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv. Bragg) mutants. Journal of Plant Physiology 145: 759-762.


  60. Staehelin, C., Granado, J., Muller, J., Wiemken, A., Mellor, R.B., Felix, G., Regenass, M., Broughton, W.J. and Boller, T. 1994. Perception of Rhizobium nodulation factors by tomato cells and inactivation by root chitinases. PNAS 91: 2196-2200.

  61. Staehelin, C., Schultze, M., Kondorosi, E., Mellor, R.B., Boller, T. and Kondorosi, A. 1994. Structural modifications in Rhizobium meliloti Nod factors influence their stability against hydrolysis by root chitinases. The Plant Journal 5: 319-330.

  62. Muller, J., Xie, Z.P., Staehelin, C., Mellor, R.B., Boller, T. and Wiemken, A. 1994. Trehalose and trehalase in root nodules from various legumes.. Physiologia Plantarum 90: 86-92.

  63. Muller, J., Xie, Z.P., Staehelin, C., Boller, T. and Wiemken, A. 1994. Effects of nitrate on accumulation of trehalose and other carbohydrates and on trehalase activity in soybean root nodules. Journal of Plant Physiology. 143: 153-160.


  64. Staehelin, C., Muller, J., Mellor, R.B., Wiemken, A. and Boller, T. 1992. Chitinase and peroxidase in effective (fix+) and ineffective (fix-) soybean nodules. Planta 187: 295-300.

  65. Muller, J., Staehelin, C., Mellor, R.B., Boller, T. and Wiemken, A. 1992. Partial purification and characterization of trehalase from soybean nodules. Journal of Plant Physiology. 140: 8-13.

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Christian Staehelin