Home Archive and Contributors BIS Art gallery Founder Directors Mission Bashan Family Contact Menu

Ann M. Hirsch

Publications with blue marking on the journal name are available as PDF files. Other papers are available as a reprint request by mail.

You have requested access to material protected by copyright. We considered your request as reprint request as is common in the scientific community. When you download a PDF, you agree to download one copy for personal and scientific use only. Commercial use or duplication is not allowed unless a permission from the copyright owner is granted.


  1. Youseif, S.H., Abd El-Megeed, F.H., Humm, E.A., Maymon, M., Mohamed, A.H., Saleh, S.A., Hirsch, A.M. 2021. Comparative analysis of the cultured and total bacterial community in the wheat rhizosphere microbiome using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. Microbiology Spectrum. 9:e00678-21. doi: 10.1128/Spectrum.00678-21.
  2. Elissiry, L.J., Sun, J., Hirsch, A.M., Liu, C. 2021. Silica sol-gene microbead encapsulation as a novel delivery method for symbiotic microbes. ChemRxiv. doi: 10.26434/chemrxiv.13277495.
  3. 2020

  4. Mukhtar, S., Hirsch, A.M., Khan, N., Malik, K.A., Humm, E.A., Pellegrini, M., Shi, B., Briscoe, L., Huntemann, M., Alicia, A., Foster, B., Foster, B., Roux, S., Palaniappan, N., Varghese, N., Mukherjee, S., Reddy, T.B.K, Daum, C., Copeland, A., Ivanova, N.N., Kyrpides, N.C., Shapiro, N., Eloe-Fadrosh, E.A., Maymon, M., Mirza, M.S., Mehnaz, S. 2020. Impact of soil salinity on the cowpea nodule-microbiome and the isolation of halotolerant PGPR strains to promote plant growth under salinity stress. Phytobiomes. 4(4). doi.org/10.1094/PBIOMES-09-19-0057-R.
  5. Khan, .N, Martínez-Hidalgo, P., Humm, E.A., Maymon, M., Kaplan, D., Hirsch A.M. 2020. Inoculation With a Microbe Isolated From the Negev Desert Enhances Corn Growth. Frontiers in Microbiology. 11:1149. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.01149.
  6. Kosty, M., Pule-Meulenberg, F., Humm, E.A., Maymon, M., Mohammadi, S., Cary, J., Yang, P., Reddi, K., Huntemann, M., Clum, A., Foster, B., Foster, B., Roux, S., Palaniappan, K., Varghese, N., Mukherjee, S. , Reddy, T.B.K., Daum, C., Alex, Copeland. A, Ivanova, N.N., Kyrpides, N.C., Shapiro, N., Eloe-Fadrosh, E.A., Hirsch, A.M. 2020. Isolation of potential plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) from nodules of legumes grown in arid Botswana soils. BioRxiv. Publ. 9.2.2020. doi: 10.1101/2020.09.02.257907.
  7. 2019

  8. Martínez-Hidalgo, P., Maymon, M., Pule-Meulenberg, F., Hirsch, A.M. 2019. Engineering root microbiomes for healthier crops and soils using beneficial, environmentally safe bacteria. Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 65(2): 91-104. doi.org/10.1139/cjm-2018-0315.
  9. Estrada-de los Santos, P., Palmer, M., Steenkamp, E.T., .2019. Trinickia dabaoshanensis sp. nov., a new name for a lost species. Arch Microbiol. 201, 1313–1316. doi: 10.1007/s00203-019-01703-2.
  10. Rojas-Rojas, F.U., Sánchez-López, D., Tapia-García, E.Y., Herrera, I.A., Maymon, M., Humm, E., Huntemann, M., Clum, A., Manoj Pillay, M., Palaniappan, K., Varghese, N., Mikhailova, N., Stamatis, D., Reddy, T.B.K., Ivanova, N., Kyrpides, N., Woyke, T., Shapiro, N., Hirsch, A.M., Ibarra, J.A., Estrada de los Santos, P. 2019. Draft Genome of Burkholderia cenocepacia TAtl-371, a Strain from the Burkholderia cepacia Complex Retains Antagonism in Different Carbon and Nitrogen Sources. Current Microbiology. 76, 566–574. doi: 10.1007/s00284-019-01657-0.
  11. 2018

  12. Galaviz, C., R. Lopez, B., de-Bashan, L.E., Hirsch, A.M., Maymon, M., and Bashan, Y. 2018. Root growth improvement of mesquite seedlings and bacterial rhizosphere and soil community changes are induced by inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria and promote restoration of eroded desert soil. Land Degradation and Development. 29(5): 1453-1466. doi: 10.1002/ldr.2904.
  13. Rojas-Rojas, F.U., Salazar, G.A., Vargas Díaz, M.E., Vásquez-Murrieta, M.S., Hirsch, A.M., De Mot, R., Ghequire, M.G.K., Ibarra, J.A., Estrada-de-los Santos, P. 2018. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity by Burkholderia cenocepacia TAtl-371, a strain isolated from the tomato rhizosphere. Microbiology. 164(9). doi: 10.1099/mic.0.000675.
  14. Sorroche, F., Bogino, P., Russo, D.M., Zorreguieta, A., Nievas, F., Morales, G.M., Hirsch, A.M., Giordano, W. 2018. Cell autoaggregation, biofilm formation, and plant attachment in a Sinorhizobium meliloti lpsB mutant. Plant-Microbe Interact. 31(10): 1075-1082. doi: 10.1094/MPMI-01-18-0004-R.
  15. Estrada-de los Santos, P., Palmer, M., Chávez-Ramírez, B., Beukes, C., Steenkamp, E.T., Briscoe, L., Khan, N., Maluk, M., Lafos, M., Humm, E., Arrabit, M., Crook, M., Gross, E., Simon, M.F., Dos Reis Junior, F.B., Whitman, W.B., Shapiro, N., Poole, P.S., Hirsch, A.M., Venter, S.N., James, E.K. 2018. Whole Genome Analyses Suggests that Burkholderia sensu lato Contains Two Additional Novel Genera (Mycetohabitans gen. nov., and Trinickia gen. nov.): Implications for the Evolution of Diazotrophy and Nodulation in the Burkholderiaceae. Genes. 9, 389. doi: 10.3390/genes9080389.
  16. Khan, N., Martínez-Hidalgo, P., Ice, T.A., Maymon, M., Humm, E.A., Nejat, N., Sanders, E.R., Kaplan, D., Hirsch, A.M. 2018 Antifungal Activity of Bacillus Species Against Fusarium and Analysis of the Potential Mechanisms Used in Biocontrol. Frontiers in Microbiology. 9:2363. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02363.
  17. Bakhoum, N., Fall, D., Fall, F., Diouf, F., Hirsch, A.M., Balachandar, D., Diouf, D. 2018. Senegalia senegal (synonym: Acacia senegal), its importance to sub-Saharan Africa, and its relationship with a wide range of symbiotic soil microorganisms. South African Journal of Botany,. 119, 362-368. doi: 10.1016/j.sajb.2018.10.007.
  18. 2016

  19. Shimomura, A., Naka, A., Miyazaki, N., Moriuchi, S., Arima, S., Sato, S., Hirakawa, H., Hayashi, M., Maymon, M., Hirsch, A.M., and Suzuki, A. 2016. Blue Light Perception by Both Roots and Rhizobia Inhibits Nodule Formation in Lotus japonicus. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions. 29(10): 786-796.

  20. De-Meyer, S.E., Briscoe, L., Martinez-Hidalgo, P., Agapakis, C.M., Estrada de-los Santos, P., Seshadri, R., Reeve, W., Weinstock, G., O'Hara, G., Howieson, J.G., and Hirsch, A.M. 2016. Symbiotic Burkholderia Species Show Diverse Arrangements of nif/fix and nod Genes and Lack Typical High-Affinity Cytochrome cbb3 Oxidase Genes. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions. 29(8): 609-619.

  21. Nagata, M., Yamamoto, N., Miyamoto, T., Shimomura, A., Arima, S., Hirsch, A.M., and Suzuki, A. 2016. Enhanced hyphal growth of arbuscular mycorrhizae by root exudates derived from high R/FR treated Lotus japonicus. Plant Signaling and Behavior. 11:6. e1187356. DOI: 10.1080/15592324.2016.1187356.

  22. Sanders, E. R., Moberg-Parker, J., Hirsch, A. M., Lee, P. Y., Shapiro, C., Toma, S., and Levis-Fitzgerald, M. 2015. Transforming Laboratory Education in the Life Sciences. Microbe 11(2): 69-74.


  23. Nagata, M., Yamamoto, N., Shigeyama, T., Terasawa, Y., Anai1, T., Sakai, T., Inada, S., Arima1, S., Hashiguchi, M., Akashi, R., Nakayama, H., Ueno, D., Hirsch, A. M., and Suzuki, A. 2015. Red/Far red light controls arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization via Jasmonic acid and strigolactone signaling. Plant and Cell Physiology doi:10.1093/pcp/pcv135.

  24. Maymon, M., Martinez-Hidalgo, P., Tran, S. S., Ice, T., Craemer, K., Anbarchian, T., Sung, T., Hwang, L. H., Chou, M., Fujishige, N. A., Villella, W., Ventosa, J., Sikorski, J., Sanders, E. R., Faull, K. F., and Hirsch, A. M. 2015. Mining the phytomicrobiome to understand how bacterial coinoculations enhance plant growth. Frontiers in Plant Sciences doi: 10.3389/fpls.2015.00784.

  25. Estrada-de los Santos, P., & Rojas-Rojas, F. U., Tapia-Garcia E. Y., Vasquez-Murrieta M- S., Hirsch, A. M. 2015. To split or not to split: An opinion on dividing the genus Burkholderia. Annals of Microbiology doi:10.1007/s13213-015-1183-1.

  26. Amaya-Gomez, C. V., Hirsch, A. M., and Soto, M. J. 2015 Biofilm formation assessment in Sinorhizobium meliloti reveals interlinked control with surface motility. BMC microbiology 15: 2-14 supporting material 1, supporting material 2, supporting material 3

  27. Moraes, D. F. C., Still, D. W., Lum, M. R., and Hirsch, A. M. DNA-Based authentication of botanicals and plant-derived dietary supplements: where have we been and where are we going?. Planta medica, supporting material


  28. Angus, A. A., Agapakis, C. M., Fong, S., Yerrapragada, S., Estrada-de los Santos, P., Yang, P., song, N., Kano, S., Caballero-Mellado, J., de Faria, S., Dakora, F. D., Weinstock, G. and Hirsch, A. M. 2014 Plant-associated symbiotic Burkholderia species lack hallmark strategies required in mammalian pathogenesis. PloS one 9: e83779

  29. Sanders, E. R., and Hirsch, A. M. 2014 Immersing undergraduate students into research on the metagenomics of the plant rhizosphere: a pedagogical strategy to engage civic-mindedness and retain undergraduates in STEM. Frontiers in Plant Science 5: 1-4


  30. Martinez-Aguilar, L., Salazar-Salazar, C., Mendez, R. D., Caballero-Mellado, J., Hirsch, A. M., Vasquez-Murrieta, M. S., and Estrada-de los Santos, P. 2013 Burkholderia caballeronis sp. nov., a nitrogen fixing species isolated from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) with the ability to effectively nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 104: 1063-1071

  31. Schwartz, A. R., Ortiz, I., Maymon, M., Herbold, C. W., Fujishige, N. A., Vijanderan, J. A., villella, W., Hanamoto, K., Diener, A., Snders, E. R., DeMason, D. A. and Hirsch, A. M. 2013 Bacillus simplex- A little known PGPB with anti-fungal activity-alters pea legume root architecture and nodule morphology when coinoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. Agronomy 3: 595-620

  32. Angus, A. A. and Hirsch, A. M. 2013 Biofilm formation in the rhizosphere: multispecies interactions and implications for plant growth, In: Molecular Microbial Ecology of the Rhizosphere: Volume 1 and 2 (ed F. J. de Bruijn), Chapter: 66, pp701-712. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118297674.ch66

  33. Angus, A. A., Lee, A., Lum, M. R., Shehayeb, M., Hessabi, R., Fujishige, N. A., Yerrapragada, S., Kano, S., Song, N., Yang, P. Estrada-de los Santos, P., Dakora, F. D., Weinstock, G. and Hirsch, A. M. 2013 Nodulation and effective nitrogen fixation of Macroptilium atropurpureum (siratro) by Burkholderia tuberum, a nodulating and plant growth promoting beta-proteobacterium, are influenced by environmental factors. Plant and soil 369: 543-562

  34. Estrada-de los Santos, P., Vinuesa, P., Martinez-Aguilar, L., Hirsch, A. M., and Caballero-Mellado, J. 2013 Phylogenetic analysis of Burkholderia species by multilocus sequence analysis. Current microbiology 67: 51-60

  35. Kaplan, D., Maymon, M., Agapakis, C. M., Lee, A., Wang, A., Prigge, B. A., Volkigon, M. and Hirsch, A. M. 2013 A survey of the microbial community in the rhizosphere of two dominant shrubs of the Negev Desert highlands, Zygophyllum dumosum (Zygophyllaceae) and Atriplex halimus (Amaranthaceae), using cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent methods. American Journal of Botany 100: 1713-1725


  36. Reis, V.M., de Los Santos, P.E., and Hirsch, A.M. 2012. Obituary of Jose de Jesus Caballero-Mellado Plant Soil 356:295-296.

  37. Shigeyama, T., Tominaga, A., Arima, S., Sakai, T., Inada, S., Jikumaru, Y., Kamiya, Y., Uchiumi, T., Abe, M., Hashiguchi, M., Akashi, R., Hirsch, A.M., and Suzuki. A. 2012. Additional cause for reduced JA-Ile in the root of a Lotus japonicus phyB mutant. Plant Signaling and Behavior 7: 1-3

  38. Hirsch, A.M. and Fujishige, N.A. 2012. Molecular signals and receptors: communication between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and their plant hosts. In: Biocommunication in Plants. Wizany, G. and Baluska, F. (eds.), Springer. Vol. 14, 255-280, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-23524-5_1.

  39. Robledo, M., Rivera, I.P., Jimenez-Zurdo, J.I., Rivas, R., Dazzo, F.B., Velazquez, E., Martinez-Molina, E., Hirsch, A.M., Mateos, P.F. 2012. Role of Rhizobium endoglucanase CelC2 in cellulose biosynthesis and biofilm formation on plant roots and abiotic surfaces. Microbial Cell Factories. 11:125. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2859-11-125.


  40. Gyaneshwar, P., Hirsch, A.M., Moulin L, Chen, W.M., Elliott, G.N., Bontemps, C., Estrada de los Santos, P., Gross, E., Bueno dos Reis Junior, F., Sprent, J.I., Young, J.P.W., and James, E.K. 2011. Legume nodulating -proteobacteria: diversity, host range and future prospects. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 24:1276-1288

  41. Suzuki, A., Suriyagoda, L, Shigeyama, T., Tominaga, A., Sasaki, M., Hiratsuka, Y., Yoshinaga A., Arima, S., Agarie, S., Sakai, T., Inada, S., Jikumaru, Y, Kamiya, Y., Uchiumi, T., Abe, M., Hashiguchi, M., Akashi, T., Sato, S., Kaneko, T., Tabata, S., and Hirsch, A.M. 2011. Lotus japonicus nodulation is photomorphogenetically controlled by sensing the R/FR ratio through JA signaling. PNAS USA. 108:16837-16842.

  42. Lum, M.R. and Hirsch, A.M. 2011. Detecting the components of botanical mixtures by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. In: Authentication of Food and Wine, S. E. Ebeler, G. R. Takeoka, P. Winterhalter, eds. ACS Symposium Series Vol. 1081, pp. 351-362.


  43. Tominaga, A., Nagata, M., Futsuki, k., Abe, H., Uchiumi, T., Abe, M., Kucho, K.-I., Hashiguchi, M., Akashi, R., Hirsch, A. M., Arima S. and Suzuki, A. 2010 Effect of abscisic acid on symbiotic nitrogen fixation activity in the root nodules of Lotus japonicus. Plant Signaling and Behavior 5: 1-4

  44. Hirsch, A.M. 2010 How rhizobia survive in the absence of a legume host, a stressful world indeed. J. Seckbach and M. Grube (eds.), In: Symbioses and Stress: Joint Ventures in Biology, Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology 17, 375-391

  45. Hirsch, A.M., Lee, A., Deng, W. and Tucker, S.-T. 2010 An open-flower mutant of Melilotus alba: Potential for floral-dip transformation of a papilionoid legume with a short life cycle?. American Journal of Botany 97: 395-404

  46. Angus, A. and Hirsch, A.M. 2010 Insights into the history of the legume-betaproteobacterial symbiosis. Molecular Ecology 19: 28-30

  47. Hirsch, A.M. and Valdes, M. 2010 Micromonospora: An important microbe for biomedicine and potentially for biocontrol and biofuels. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 42: 536-542


  48. De Hoff, P.L., Brill, L.M. and Hirsch, A.M. 2009. Plant lectins: the ties that bind in root symbiosis and plant defense. Molecular Genetics and Genomics 282: 1-15. DOI 10.1007/s00438-009-0460-8

  49. Tominaga, A., Nagata, M., Futsuki, K., Abe, H., Uchiumi, T., Abe, M., Kucho, K.-I., Hashiguchi, M., Akashi, R., Hirsch, A.M., Arima, S. and Suzuki, A. Enhanced nodulation and nitrogen fixation in the abscisic acid low-sensitive mutant enhanced nitrogen fixation1 of Lotus japonicus Plant Physiology 151: 1965-1976

  50. Hirsch, A.M., Lum, M.R. and Fujishige, N.A. 2009. Microbial encounters of a symbiotic kind-attaching to roots and other surfaces. In: Emons, A.M.C. and T. Ketelaar (eds.). Root Hairs. Plant Cell Monographs. Vol. 12. Pp. 295-314. DOI 10.1007/7089_2008


  51. Nishiguchi, M.K., Hirsch, A.M., Devinney, R., Vedantam, G., Riley, M.A. and Mansky, L.M. 2008 Deciphering evolutionary mechanisms between mutualistic and pathogenic symbioses. Vie Milieu 58: 87-106

  52. Hirsch, A.M. and Fujishige, N.A. 2008. Commensalism. In: Population Dynamics, Vol. 1, Encyclopedia of Ecology, 5 Vols. Eds. S.E. Jorgensen and B. D. Fath. Elsevier, Oxford. pp. 679-683.

  53. Lee, A., Giordano, W., and Hirsch, A.M. 2008. Cytokinin induces expansin gene expression in Melilotus alba Desr. wild-type and the non-nodulating, non-mycorrhizal (Nod-Myc-) mutant Masym3. Plant Signaling and Behavior 3:218-223.

  54. Fujishige, N.A., Lum, M.R., De Hoff, P.L., Whitelegge, J.P., Faull, K.F., and Hirsch, A.M. 2008. Rhizobium common nod genes are required for biofilm formation. Molecular Microbiology 67: 504-515

  55. Suzuki, A., Hara, H., Kinoue, T., Abe,, M., Uchiumi, T., Kucho, K., Higashi, S., Hirsch, A.M., and Arima, S. 2008. Split-root study of autoregulation of nodulation in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Journal of Plant Research 121: 245-249


  56. Lee, A., Lum, M.R. and Hirsch, A.M. 2007. ENOD40 gene expression and cytokinin responses in the non-nodulating non-mycorrhizal (Nod-Myc-) mutant, Masym3, of Melilotus alba Desr. Plant Signaling and Behavior 2: 33-42.

  57. Woo, H.-H., Jeong, B.R., Hirsch, A.M., and Hawes, M.C. 2007. Characterization of Arabidopsis AtUGT85A and AtGUS gene families and their expression in rapidly dividing tissues. Genomics 90: 143-153.

  58. Woo, H.-H., Jeong, B.R., Hirsch, A.M., and Hawes, M.C. 2007. Modifying expression of closely related UDP-glycosyltransferases from pea and Arabidopsis results in altered root development and function. Physiologia Plantarum 130: 250-260


  59. Fujishige, N.A., Kapadia, N.N. and Hirsch, A.M. 2006. A feeling for the microorganism: structure on a small scale. Biofilms on plant roots. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 150: 79-88

  60. Fujishige, N.A., Kapadia, N.N., De Hoff, P.L., and Hirsch, A.M. 2006. Investigations of Rhizobium biofilm formation. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 56: 195-205

  61. Rinaudi, L., Fujishige, N.A., Hirsch, A.M. 2006, Banchio, E., Zorreguieta, and Giordano, W. 2006. Effects of nutritional and environmental conditions on Sinorhizobium meliloti biofilm formation. Research in Microbiology 157: 867-875

  62. Lee, A. and Hirsch, A.M. 2006. Signals and responses: choreographing the complex interaction between legumes and alpha- and beta-rhizobia. Plant Signaling and Behavior 1: 161-168


  63. Valdes, M., Perez, N.-O., Estrada-de los Santos, P., Caballero-Mellado, J., Normand , P., and Hirsch, A.M. 2005 Non-Frankia actinomycetes isolated from surface-sterilized roots of Casuarina equisetifolia fix nitrogen. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71: 460-466

  64. Lum, M., Potter, E., Dang, T., Heber, D., Hardy, M., and Hirsch, A.M. 2005. Identification of botanicals and potential contaminants through RFLP and sequencing. Planta Med. 71:841-846.

  65. Luckow, M., Hughes, C., Schrire, B., Pedley, L., Fagg, C., Fortunato, R., Hurter, J., Rico, L., Bruneau, A., Caccavari, M., Cisp, M., Delgado S., A., Doyle, J.J., Harris, S., Herendeen, P.S. Hernandez, H.M., Hirsch, A.M., Jobson, R., Klitgaard, B.B., Simpson, B.B., Smith, G.F., Sousa S., M., Timberlake, J., Wills, C.K., Winter, P., and Wojciechowski, M.F. 2005. Acacia: the case against moving the type to Australia. Taxon 54: 513-519


  66. Brill, L.M., Fujishige, N.A., Hackworth, C.A. and Hirsch A.M. 2004. Expression of MsLEC1 -transgenes in alfalfa plants causes symbiotic abnormalities. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 17: 16-26

  67. Lum, M.R. and Hirsch, A.M. 2004. Fixed-nitrogen deficiency: Overcoming by nodulation. In : R.M. Goodman (ed.). Encyclopedia of Crop and Plant Sciences. Marcel Dekker, Inc., NY. pp. 448-451.

  68. Woo, H.-H., Hirsch, A.M., and Hawes, M.C. 2004. Altered susceptibility to infection by Sinorhizobium meliloti and Nectria haematococcain alfalfa roots with altered cell cycle. Plant Cell Reports 12: 967-973

  69. Giordano, W. and Hirsch, A.M. 2004. The expression of MaEXP1, a Melilotus alba expansin gene is up-regulated during the sweetclover- Sinorhizobium meliloti interaction. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 17: 613-622

  70. Wildman, S.G., Hirsch, A.M., Kirchanski, S.J., and Spencer, D. 2004. Chloroplasts in living cells and the string-of-grana concept of chloroplast structure revisited. Photosynthesis Research 80: 345-352

  71. Wen, F., Woo, H.H., Hirsch, A.M., and Hawes, M.C. 2004. Lethality of inducible, meristem localized ectopic expression of beta-glucuronidase in plants. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 22: 7-14

  72. Hirsch, A.M. 2004. Plant-microbe symbioses: a continuum from commensalism to parasitism. Symbiosis 37: 345-363


  73. Hirsch, A.M., Bauer, W.D., Bird, D.M., Cullimore, J., Tyler, B., and Yoder, J.I. 2003. Molecular signals and receptors - controlling rhizosphere interactions between plants and other organisms. Ecology 84: 858-868

  74. De Hoff, P. and Hirsch, A.M. 2003. Nitrogen comes down to earth. Report from the 5th European Nitrogen Fixation Conference. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 16: 371-375

  75. Karlowski, W.M. and Hirsch, A.M. 2003. The overexpression of an alfalfa RING-H2 gene induces pleiotropic effects on plant growth and development. Plant Molecular Biology 52: 121-133

  76. Lum, M.R, and Hirsch, A.M. 2003. Roots and their symbiotic microbes: strategies to obtain nitrogen and phosphorous in a nutrient-limiting environment. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 21: 368-382

  77. Woo, H.- H., Faull, K.F., Hirsch, A.M., and Hawes, M.C. 2003. Altered life cycle in Arabidopsis plant expressing PsUGT1, a UDP-glucuronosyltransferase-encoding gene from Pea. Plant Physiology 133: 538-548


  78. Woo, H.-H., Kuleck, G., Hirsch, A.M., and Hawes, M.C. 2002. Flavonoids: signal molecules in plant development. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 505: 51-60

  79. Lum, M., Li, Y., LaRue, T.A., Schwartz, R.D., Kapulnik, Y. and Hirsch, A.M. 2002. Investigation of four non-nodulating mutants of white sweetclover ( Melilotus alba annua Desr.) mutants and their response to arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi. Integrative and Comparative Biology 42: 113-121.

  80. Hirsch, A.M., Krupp, R.S.N., Lin, Y., Wang, S.S., Yang, W., and Tucker, S.C. 2002. Inflorescence and flower development in wild-type and sid mutant Melilotus alba, white sweetclover. Canadian Journal of Botany 80: 732-740.

  81. Leroy, A., Potter, E., Woo, H.-H., Heber, D., and Hirsch, A.M. 2002. Characterization and identification of alfalfa and red clover dietary supplements using PCR-based method. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemestry 50: 5063-5069

  82. Giordano, W., Lum, M.R., and Hirsch, A.M. 2002. Effects of a Nod-factor overproducing strain of Sinorhizobium meliloti on the expression of the ENOD40 gene in Melilotus alba. Canadian Journal of Botany 80: 907-915


  83. Hirsch, A.M., Lum, M.R., and Downie, JA. 2001. What makes the rhizobia-legume symbiosis so special? Plant Physiology 127: 1-9

  84. van Rhijn, P., Fujishige, N.A., Lim, P.-O., and Hirsch, A.M. 2001. Sugar-binding activity of pea (Pisum sativum) lectin is essential for heterologous infection of transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants by Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae. Plant Physiology 125: 133-144

  85. Brill, L.M., Evans, C. J. and Hirsch, A.M. 2001 Expression of MsLEC1- and MsLEC2-antisense genes in alfalfa plant lines causes severe embryogenic, developmental and reproductive abnormalities. The Plant Journal 25: 453-461


  86. Galvez, S., Hirsch, A.M., Wycoff, K.L., Hunt, S., Layzell, D.B., Kondorosi, A., and Crespi, M. 2000. Oxygen regulation of a nodule-located carbonic anhydrase in alfalfa. Plant Physiology 124: 1059-1068

  87. Hirsch, A.M. and McFall-Ngai, M. 2000. Fundamental concepts in symbiotic interactions: light and dark; night and day; squids and legumes. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 19: 113-130

  88. Okubara, P.A., Fujishige, N.A., Hirsch, A.M. and Berry, A.M. 2000. Dg93, a nodulespecific mRNA of Datisca glomerata with homology to a soybean early nodulin gene. Plant Physiology 122: 1073-1079

  89. Okubara, P.A., Fujishige, N.A., Hirsch, A.M. and Berry, A.M. 2000. Dg93, a nodulespecific mRNA of Datisca glomerata with homology to a soybean ENOD. Plant Physiology 122: 1073-1079


  90. Woo, H.-H., Orbach, M.J., Hirsch, A.M., and Hawes, M.C. 1999. Meristem-localized inducible expression of UDP-glycosyltransferase is essential for growth and development in pea and alfalfa. Plant Cell 11: 2303-2315

  91. Brill, L.M. and Hirsch, A.M. 1999. Stable transformation of T1 and T2 transgenic alfalfa with antisense-lectin constructs. Symbiosis. 27:17-32

  92. Hirsch, A.M. 1999. Role of lectins (and rhizobial exopolysaccharides) in legume nodulation. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 2: 320-326


  93. van Rhijn, P., Goldberg, R.B. and Hirsch, A.M. 1998. Lotus corniculatus nodulation specificity is changed by the presence of a soybean lectin gene. Plant Cell 10: 1233-1250

  94. Hirsch, A.M. and Kapulnik, Y. 1998. Signal transduction pathways in mycorrhizal associations: Comparisons with the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. Fungal Genetics and Biology 23: 205-212

  95. Wycoff, K.L., Hunt, S., Gonzales, M.B., VandenBosch, K.A., Layzell, D.B. and Hirsch, A.M. 1998. Effects of oxygen on nodule physiology and expression of nodulins in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Plant Physiology 117: 385-395

  96. Ginzburg, I., David, R., Shaul, O., Atzmon, N., Elad, Y., Wininger, S., Ben-Dor, B., Badani, H., Fang, Y., van Rhijn, P., Li, Y., Hirsch, A.M., and Kapulnik, Y. 1998. Glomus intraradices colonization regulates gene expression in alfalfa and tobacco roots. Symbiosis. 25:145-157

  97. Fang, Y. and Hirsch, A.M. 1998. Studying early nodulin gene ENOD40 expression and induction by Nod factor and cytokinin in transgenic alfalfa. Plant Physiology 116: 53-68

  98. Niner, B.M. and Hirsch, A.M. 1998. How many Rhizobium genes, in addition to nod, nif/fix, and exo, are needed for nodule development and function? Symbiosis. 24:51-102

  99. McKhann, H.I., Paiva, N.L., Dixon, R.A. and Hirsch, A.M. 1998. Expression of genes for enzymes of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in the early stages of the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 439:45-54. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4615-5335-9_4.
  100. 1997

  101. Hirsch, A.M., Fang, Y., Asad, S., and Kapulnik, Y. 1997. The role of phytohormones in plant-microbe symbioses. Plant Soil 194: 171-184

  102. van Rhijn, P., Fang, Y., Galili, S., Shaul, O., Atzmon, N., Winiger, S., Eshead, Y., Lum, M., Li, Y., To, V., Fujishige, N., Kapulnik, Y., and Hirsch, A.M. 1997. Expression of early nodulin genes in alfalfa mycorrhizae indicates that signal transduction pathways used in forming arbuscular mycorrhizae and Rhizobium-induced nodules may be conserved. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 94: 5467-5472

  103. Hirsch, A.M. and LaRue, T.A. 1997. Is the legume nodule a modified root or stem or an organ sui generis? Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 16:361-392. doi: 10.1080/07352689709701954.

  104. Wycoff, K.L., van Rhijn, P., and Hirsch, A.M. 1997. The ribosomal protein P0 of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) has antigenic cross-reactivity to soybean seed lectin. Plant Mololecular Biology 34:295-306

  105. McKhann, H.I., Paiva, N.L., Dixon, R.A.. and Hirsch, A.M. 1997. Chalcone synthase transcripts are detected in alfalfa root hairs following inoculation with wild-type Rhizobium meliloti. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interaction 10: 50-58

  106. Akkermans, A.D.L. and Hirsch, A.M. 1997. A reconsideration of terminology in Frankia research: A need for congruence. Physiol. Plant. 99:574-578.


  107. Niner, B.M., Brandt, J.P., Villegas, M., Marshall, C.R., Hirsch, A.M., and Valdes, M. 1996. Analysis of partial sequences for 16S rRNA of actinomycetes isolated from Casuarina equisetifolia nodules in Mexico. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2: 3034-3036


  108. Hirsch, A.M., Brill, L.M., Lim, P.O., Scambray, J., and van Rhijn, P. 1995. Steps toward defining the role of lectins in nodule development in legumes. Symbiosis. 19:155-173

  109. Hirsch, A.M., McKhann, H.I., Reddy, A., Liao, J., Fang, Y., and Marshall, C.R. 1995. Assessing horizontal transfer of nifHDK genes in eubacteria: nucleotide sequence of nifK from Frankia strain HFPCcI3. Molecualr Biology and Evolution12: 16-27

  110. Brill, L.M., Konyalian, V.R., Hirsch, A.M. 1995. A 1.7-kilobase genomic fragment of alfalfa DNA contains the lectin gene Mslec1. Plant Physiology 108: 1311-1312

  111. Hirsch, A.M. and Kirchanski, S.J. 1995. Publish and perish: The rules of the game. Plant Physiology 109: 1131-1132


  112. Asad, S., Fang, Y., Wycoff, K.L., and Hirsch, A.M. 1994. Isolation and characterization of cDNA and genomic clones of MsENOD40; transcripts are detected in meristematic cells. Protoplasma 183: 10-23

  113. Hirsch, A.M. and Fang, Y. 1994. Plant hormones and nodulation: What's the connection? Plant Mololecular Biology 26: 5-9

  114. McKhann, H.I. and Hirsch, A.M. 1994. Isolation of chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerase cDNAs from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.): highest transcript levels occur in young roots and root tips. Plant Molecular Biology 24: 767-777


  115. Guillan, G., Valdes, M., Liao, J., and Hirsch, A.M. 1993. Identificacion de actinobacterias aisladas de nódulos de Casuarina, por tecnicas tradicionales y moleculares. Revista Lat. Amer. Microbiol. 35:195-200

  116. Lobler, M. and Hirsch, A.M. 1993. A gene that encodes a proline-rich nodulin with limited homology to PsENOD12 is expressed in the invasion zone of Rhizobium meliloti-induced alfalfa nodules. Plant Physiology 103:21-30


  117. Scheres, B., McKhann, H.I., Zalensky, A., Lobler, M., Bisseling, T., and Hirsch, A.M. 1992. The PsENOD12 gene is expressed at two different sites in Afghanistan pea pseudonodules induced by auxin transport inhibitors. Plant Physiology 100: 1649-1655

  118. Lobler, M. and Hirsch, A.M. 1992. An alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cDNA encoding an acidic leghemoglobin (MsLb3). Plant Molecular Biology 20: 733-736

  119. Hirsch, A.M. 1992. Tansley Review No. 40. Developmental biology of legume nodulation. New Phytology. 122:211-237. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.1992.tb04227.x

  120. Hirsch, A.M., McKhann, H.I., and Lobler, M. 1992. Bacterial-induced changes in plant form and function. International Journal of Plant Science 153: S171-S181

  121. Reddy, A., Bochenek, B., and Hirsch, A.M. 1992. A new Rhizobium meliloti symbiotic mutant isolated after introducing Frankia DNA sequence into a nodA::Tn5 strain. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 5: 62-71

  122. Yang, C. Signer, E.R. and Hirsch, A.M. 1992. Nodules initiated by Rhizobium meliloti exopolysaccharide mutants lack a discrete, persistent nodule meristem. Plant Physiology 98: 143-151


  123. Kneen, B.E., LaRue, T.A., Hirsch, A.M., Smith, C.A., and Weeden, N.F. 1990. sym 13 - a gene controlling ineffective nodulation in P. sativum. Plant Physiology 94: 899-905

  124. van de Wiel, C., Norris, J.H., Bochenek, B., Dickstein, R., Bisseling, T., and Hirsch, A.M. 1990. Nodulin gene expression and ENOD2 localization in effective nitrogen-fixing and ineffective bacteria-free nodules of alfalfa. Plant Cell 15:513-516

  125. Lobler, M. and Hirsch, A.M. 1990. RFLP mapping of the abp1 locus in maize (Zea mays L.). Plant Molecular Biology 15:513-516.


  126. Hirsch, A.M., Bhuvaneswari, T.V., Torrey, J.G., and Bisseling, T. 1989. Early nodulin genes are induced in alfalfa root outgrowths elicited by auxin transport inhibitors. Proceedings of the National Acaddemic of Sciences of the USA. 86: 1244-1249

Chapter in books

Items in the following list that are not available for download may be available upon request from the author. Please contact them directly for any such inquiry.


  1. Kouas, S., Khan, N., Hirsch, A.M. 2021. The Hologenome Hypothesis and Its Application to Plant-Microbe Interactions on an Evolutionary Scale. In: Microbes: The Foundation Stone of the Biosphere. Advances in Environmental Microbiology. vol 8. eds: Hurst, C.J. Springer, Cham. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-63512-1_21.
  2. 2015

  3. Walker, R., Agapakis, C. M., Watkin, E., and Hirsch, A. M. 2015. Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Legumes: Perspectives on the diversity and evolution of nodulation by Rhizobium andBurkholderia Species. In: Biological Nitrogen Fixation. Volume 2. Ed: Frans J. de Bruijn. Biological Nitrogen Fixation 1(44): 441-445.

  4. Nagata, M., Hirsch, A. M., and Suzuki, A. 2015. Lotus japonicus nodulates when it sees red. In: Biological Nitrogen Fixation. Volume 1. Ed: Frans J. de Bruijn. Biological Nitrogen Fixation 2(89): 913-923.


  5. Lum, M.R., Baycher, A., Prigge, B.A., Hardy, M., Heber, D., and Hirsch, A.M. 2007. Identification of green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) and tea oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.) by molecular biological and anatomical methods. In: Authentication of Food and Wine, S. E. Ebeler, G. R. Takeoka, P. Winterhalter, eds. Oxford University Press. pp. 290-304.


  6. Hirsch, A.M., Lum, M.R., Giordano, W.F., Fujishige, N.A., and Woo, H.-H. 2004. Changes elicited by Rhizobium inoculation in expression of genes influenced by phytohormone levels. In: Biology of Molecular Plant-Microbe Interaction, Vol. 4 , eds: B. Lugtenberg, I. Tikhonovich, N. Provorov, IS-MPMI, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA, pp. 383-388.


  7. Guinel, F and Hirsch, A.M. 2000. The involvement of root hairs in mycorrhizal associations. In: Cell and Molecular Biology of Plant Root Hairs. Eds. R.W Ridge and A.M. Emons. Springer-Verlag, Tokyo, pp. 285-310

  8. Hirsch, A.M., Lum, M.R., Krupp, R.S.N., Yang, W. and Karlowski, W.M. 2000. Melilotus alba Desr., white sweetclover, a mellifluous model legume. In: Prokaryotic Nitrogen Fixation: A Model System for the Analysis of a Biological Process. Ed. E.W. Triplett. Horizon Scientific Press. pp. 627-642


  9. Fang, Y. and Hirsch, A.M. 1999. The involvement of flavonoids, Nod factors, and phytohormones in nodulation. In: Plant Responses to Environmental Stresses: From Phytohormones to Genome Reorganization. Ed. H.R. Lerner. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York. pp. 629-658


  10. McKhann, H.I. and Hirsch, A.M. 1994. Does Rhizobium avoid the host response? Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 192:139-162


  11. McKhann, H.I. and Hirsch, A.M. 1993. In situ localization of specific mRNAs in plant tissues. In: Methods in Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology. Eds. J.E. Thompson and B.R. Glick. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 173-205.
  12. 1990

  13. Simonet, P., Normand, P., Hirsch, A.M. and Akkermans, A.D.L. 1990. The genetics of the Frankia-actinorhizal symbiosis. In: Nitrogen Fixation. Ed: P.M. Gresshof. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 77-109